For the uninitiated, this is a story that is sure to shock your system. As “dry counties” pop up across the US Southwest and water restrictions become the norm, profiteers are actively battling for water resources overhead. This is a tale of two states engaged in water warfare. While this story is entirely true, very few people know about the multibillion dollar weather control industry and its effect on extreme weather events. This secrecy ends today. I hope you will take the time to research this hidden history of hacking the heavens and contact your representatives to demand accountability.
A brief history of Weather Modification in the United States of AmericaThe age of the Pluviculturalists began with James "The Storm King" Espy's first discussion of burning forests to "seed" clouds in the 1850's.  Between 1850 and 1945 all manner of techniques were employed to try and make it rain, like Charles “moisture accelerator” Hatfield's San Diego flood story  or General "Dry Hence Forth" who blew up the Texas skies with cannons.  In 1946, cloud-seeding was "officially" invented by Vincent Schaefer,  Irving Langmuir,  and Bernard Vonnegut. 
Before July 1946, the famous observation that "everybody talks about the weather, but nobody does anything about it" might as well have been a law of physics. Weather modification belonged in the realm of hokum until that July. Then, without warning or expectation, chance favored the prepared mind of a General Electric Laboratories scientist named Vincent Schaefer, and cloud seeding was born. Initially, airplanes were used to fly into clouds and burn chemicals that scientists hoped would make it rain. These chemical seeds, known as Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN), attach to water vapor and get bigger and bigger until they form water droplets that fall as rain. Although dry ice,  fertilizer,  and even concrete  are used as cloud-seeding agents, the weather modification chemical of choice is silver iodide. In December of 1949, Irving P. Krick proposed cloud-seeding from ground-based smoke plume generators.  Backed by "scientific claims" of massively increased rainfall, Krick's ground-based seeders now cover the entire west coast's mountain ranges. Cloud seeding experiments now expanded across the U.S. from coast to coast. The following map shows us cloud seeding experiments from 1952 - 1965.  The cloud-seeding map quickly doubles during Project Skywater as the government gets involved, big time.  This federally funded US. Bureau of Reclamation weather control program initially began in 1961 with $100,000 from Congress and grew to $6.8 million dollars by 1972!  Here is the Bureau of Reclamation's promotional video entitled "Mountain Skywater" discussing the effectiveness of the US. government program.
Weather Warfare, March 20, 1967 — July 5, 1972
Operation Popeye first came to public light in March 1971, when reporter Jack Anderson published a story based on a secret 1967 memo from the Joint Chiefs of Staff to President Johnson. The memo read: “Laos operations – Continue as at present plus Pop Eye to reduce the trafficability [sic] along infiltration routes & Authorization requested to implement operational phase of weather modification process previously successful tested and evaluated in some area”. (US Senate, Subcommittee on Oceans and International Environment; 26 July 1972; p. 5). Members of Congress pressed the Pentagon to unveil details of the weather modification program. Senator Claiborne Pell, chairman of the Senate Subcommittee on Oceans and International Environment, and later chairman of the Foreign Relations Committee, was the engine behind that effort, although there were others, both in the Senate and the House, who devoted energy to it. Rainmaking operations were a source of concern not only because the impact of the operations themselves, but because they were seen as opening the door to a new and dangerous type of warfare. Severe rains and typhoons in North Vietnam in 1971 added to concern, a link to the U.S. cloud seeding operations was suspected. According to Pell: Rainmaking as a weapon of war can only lead to the development of vastly more dangerous environmental techniques whose consequences may be unknown and may cause irreparable damage to our global environment. This is why the United States must move quickly to ban all environmental or geophysical modification techniques from the arsenals of war. (US Senate, Subcommittee on Oceans and International Environment; July 26, 1972; p. 4) Laird wasn’t the only official whose 1972 weather modification testimony was untruthful. Benjamin Forman, a senior Department of Defense lawyer, reiterated Laird’s denial later that year: “We have not, as Secretary Laird has previously said, ever engaged in weather modification activities in Northern Vietnam.” At the same hearing, the Deputy Director of the US Arms Control and Disarmament Agency had similar difficulties. Asked by Senator Pell if rainmaking projects had been approved by Laos and Thailand, Philip Farley replied: “I don’t wish even to admit, sir, that there were such projects.” The Vietnam war's cloud-seeding bombs were made at On 23 September 1971, Pell sent a letter to the Defense Department requesting information on Operation Popeye. After waiting 4 months to answer, the Defense Department declined to reply on the basis that it would threaten national security. (US Senate, Subcommittee on Oceans and International Environment; 26 July 1972; p. 4). Testifying to the Senate on 18 April 1972, Secretary of Defense Melvin Laird denied any weather modification in Northern Vietnam, saying “we have never engaged in that type of activity over Northern Vietnam.” (Quoted in: US Senate, Subcommittee on Oceans and International Environment; March 20, 1974; p. 109.). Naval Air Weapons Station China Lake, California.
International Ban on Weather Warfare and (some) transparency in Weather Modification
As a result of the weather warfare over Vietnam and the lies told by top brass at the U.S. military during Congressional testimony, an international ban on weather warfare was drafted and singed in 1978 and numerous weather modification reporting laws were passed in the United States of America.
- Weather Modification Reporting Act of 1972 - Public Law 92-205 "AN ACT To provide for the reporting of weather modification activities to the Federal Government"  15 CFR Part 908 — "Maintaining Records and Submitting Reports on Weather Modification Activities"  - NOAA reporting forms 
- National Weather Modification Policy Act of 1976 - Public Law 94-490 "AN ACT To authorize and direct tlie Secretary of Commerce to develop a national policy on weather modification, and for other purposes"  15 U.S. Code Chapter 9A - "Weather Modification Activities or Attempts; Reporting Requirement" 
- ENMOD 1978 – Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques - International ban on weather modification for the purpose of warfare. 
In addition, Congress ordered a full accounting of weather modification activities across the United States of America.
- Weather Modification: Programs, Problems, Policy, and Potential - Prepared at the Request of Hon. Howard W. Cannon, Chairman Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, United States Senate 
- Summary of Weather Modification Activities Reported in 1979, U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Office of Research and Development 
Cloud seeding went from invention, to nationwide experimentation, and finally weaponization in less than thirty years.
The lessons learned from the 1970’s have been long forgotten due to the fact they were barely publicized in the first place and are not taught as “history” today.
"Those who forget the past are doomed to repeat it"
We have now come full circle as the skies are being controlled by unknown entities and the authorities at the government agencies claim ignorance of any weather modification activities.
The video above ends with director of the National Weather Service, Dr. Louis Uccellini, and the Storm Prediction Center’s director Dr. Russell Schneider claiming ignorance of weather modification programs in the USA. When asked about the Department of Homeland Security steering hurricanes, both men denied knowledge of the Hurricane Aerosol Microphysics Program (HAMP). The DHS Hurricane Modification Workshop in 2008 was attended by NCAR, UCAR, NOAA, Savannah River National Lab, Woodley Weather Consultants, and several universities from the USA, UK, and Israel yet these two directors NEVER HEARD OF IT.
Despite the reporting laws of the 70’s, many individuals are exempt from reporting their weather modification activities and there is no real punishment for offenders. Even worse, to this day there is no way to verify whether or not someone is “controlling” the weather, making it almost impossible to prosecute.
Weather modification has once again become perfect plausibly deniable weapon and the secret corporate industry.
In fact, the U.S. military is once again pursuing prowess in weather warfare despite the ENMOD ban, check out these two FOIA documents below and a presentation discussing the military’s current weather control intentions.
- US Air Force proposal to develop a theater-scale weather modification system using carbon black. Phillips Laboratory (AFMC) Geophysics Directorate. Released under 1994 FOIA from the Joint Non-Lethal Weapons Directorate.
- US Navy proposal to develop new weather modification weapons.Code C2741 (Warhead Development Branch) NAWCWPNS, China Lake, California. This proposal is from April, 1994 and was submitted to the Joint Non-Lethal Weapons Directorate.
Cloud-Seeding is Old SchoolToday, California and Texas are heavily invested in cloud-seeding despite any clear evidence that it is helping their droughts.
Despite repeated failures to prove the science behind cloud-seeding, every Tom, Dick, and Harry is getting in on the mix:
- Oliver’s Travels offers perfect Wedding Day Weather for £100,000
- ‘How we made the Chernobyl rain’
- How Beijing used rockets to keep opening ceremony dry, Chinese PLA
- When Cloud Seeding Goes Wrong: Cement Chunk Falls From the Sky, Russian Air Force
Here is a list of on-going weather control programs:
NOAA Reported Weather Modification Activities (USA)
- 2012 NOAA Weather Modification Programs 12WXMOD5 partial | Link
- 2011 NOAA Weather Modification Programs 11WXMOD5 partial | Link
- 2010 NOAA Weather Modification Programs 10WXMOD5 | Link
- 2009 NOAA Weather Modification Programs 09WXMOD5 | Link
- 2008 NOAA Weather Modification Programs 08WXMOD5| Link
- 2007 NOAA Weather Modification Programs 07WXMOD5 | Link
- 2006 NOAA Weather Modification Programs 06WXMOD5 | Link
- 2005 NOAA Weather Modification Programs 05WXMOD5 | Link
- 2004 NOAA Weather Modification Programs 04WXMOD5 | Link
Though cloud-seeding is still the most used weather manipulation technique, there are a few technologies that are real game-changers:
- Rain-making lasers could trigger showers on demand 2010
- Teramobile - The first mobile terawatt laser in the world for atmospheric studies (and steering lightning)
Making rain and steering lighting with lasers may sound impressive, but it pales in comparison to the claims Aquiess and Sciblue.
Steering the Rivers in the SkyCloud seeding cannot make rain where there is no water. So where does the water in the sky come from? Turns out, they are called atmospheric rivers.
Atmospheric Rivers (AR) are relatively narrow regions in the atmosphere that are responsible for most of the horizontal transport of water vapor outside of the tropics. While ARs come in many shapes and sizes, those that contain the largest amounts of water vapor, the strongest winds, and stall over watersheds vulnerable to flooding, can create extreme rainfall and floods. These events can disrupt travel, induce mud slides, and cause catastrophic damage to life and property. However, not all ARs cause damage – most are weak, and simply provide beneficial rain or snow that is crucial to water supply. Learn more…
A company named Aquiess is claiming to be able to steer these “atmospheric rivers” with “weather resonance technology.”
They claim that they have used this technology in Australia, Africa, and Texas and it really works!
In 1990’s, MIT’s Atmospheric Laboratory conducted field trials in non-conventional weather modification technologies.
Through further studies, atmospheric researchers developed a theory that identified macro‐scale weather chaos as ‘the key’ to influencing weather. During late 1990’s an independent research team in Australia stumbled on an ‘atmospheric mechanism’ whilst exploring origins of this theory. Experimental trials revealed that “small amounts of electromagnetic energy, applied intelligently,” could force change into weather, based on atmospheric sine wave patterns. This research culminated in the development of an atmospheric resonance technology, represented by Aquiess International (aquiess).
Electromagnetic wave forms are utilized to deliver signals toward a target weather system, that may be as remote as beyond the visible horizon. Proprietary technologies which draw upon data from locally applied hardware and software as well as disparate sensors, are deployed to modify the patterns forming ‘oceanic corridors’ that deliver rain. Scientific analysis of aquiess’ results, shows what is described as ‘resonance technology’, has both a vast reach and incremental scalability.
The core technology and primary IP are protected by treaties and strict security protocols which surround the project. Source: Aquiess: Technology
The company has developed from success in field service (real world problem-solving) for farmers through to government. Recent successes have attracted international governments through independantly verifiable results. A November ‘08 deployment in Victoria, was effective in protecting valuable crops from damaging rains, during harvest (aquiess ‘Avoidance’ service.)
Aquiess’ gentle soaking rain and micro-weather modification can assist in a range of applications: drought mitigation, flood reduction, frost avoidance, hail mitigation, heat wave mitigation, precipitation, and wind reduction. Source: Aquiess: Services
aquiess weather modification is based on frequencies that are discoverable, code and algorithms, which can enable (an apparent) direct connectivity between programming operations and atmospheric systems. One commonly accepted analogy to this is the setting up of harmonic waves by soldiers marching on a bridge. If enough soldiers march in-time on a bridge, the bridge will oscillate and could inadvertently destroyed. If a device was produced to remotely ‘deploy’ the same harmonic frequency upon that bridge, it could be physically destroyed without the soldiers. Using this ‘resonance mechanism’ we have been able to demonstrate modification of atmospheric streams of gentle soaking rain. Souce: Aquiess: Theory
Image source: Aquiess RAINAID – Weaving Global Moisture, Images reference: Navy.mil
“… in the US they are trying to modify the ionosphere to get weather changes” – Aquiess CEO David Miles. Aquiess KTN Interview, How it works | Video Link
Now that we have met Aquiess, let us bring this story home and get down to brass tax.
Aquiess comes to Texas
Fresh water has been dubbed “Blue Gold” in many publications as potable water will be to this century what oil was to the last century. Less than three percent of the water on the earth’s surface is fresh water. When we deduct the amount in the ice at each pole and the rivers flowing in uninhabited areas that number is less than one percent. From this amount the nearly 7 billion people on earth use to survive. ~ Retired Col. David KutchinskiMr. Kutchinski’s company, Sciblue, partnered with Aquiess to bring their “resonance technology” to Texas and end the drought in 2012.
Presiding Officer, Frank Reilly moved to agenda item J., Consideration and possible recommendation on a request for exemption status for a proposed rain-enhancement demonstration project in the Trans-Pecos region. George Bomar introduced David Kutchinski, who has a proposal to produce more water for the reservoir operated by the Red Bluff Water Control District based in Pecos. Mr. Kutchinski presented a power point of the concepts for increasing the water supply and a research project to enhance rain. This project would be conducted in association with SOAR and Red Bluff Water Control District. The project would be administered under the Texas State Water Plan and has been offered in other countries with reported success. Mr. Bomar outlined the process for obtaining a permit and getting approval from the Committee and Commission. The Committee recommended staff and General Counsel work with Mr. Kutchinski on the permitting process. Source: Texas Weather Modification BoardAquiess and Sciblue claim success in steering atmospheric rivers over Texas and ending the drought:
In their own words:
UPDATE - November 2012 Within 30 days of April 16th, Aquiess delivered inches of soaking rain into it’s Texas target.
“Rain like this is only the first phase of our drought-breaking services that are offered to USA and international communities experiencing water and food shortages,” says company CEO. This event was part of the endeavor to bring moisture safely into the Red Bluff reservoir in Texas.The project ran three months in entirety, Red Bluff water level rose 15.3 inches according to UCGS records.
Over the past ten years the company Aquiess has repeatedly demonstrated this technology to government and humanitarian observer groups. The proprietary weather modification system operates by utilizing ‘resonance’ signals to divert oceanic atmospheric-rivers (OAR) into areas experiencing severe drought. The Aquiess system does not rely on chemical or biologically hazardous materials, which could potentially harm the environment.
The second targeted rain event for this Texas project, was delivered in July, as part of a second ‘30-day event undertaking’. The results from this project, although they did not supply 29 feet required to fill the Red Bluff reservoir in Texas, they delivered a much needed reprise from the crippling drought in the southern-Texas region.
On May 3rd, 2012 NOAA released a Special Weather Briefing document, to explain an unusual change in the Texas region’s weather.
They began to observe the changes Aquiess had initiated, to deliver Texas drought-breaking rain.
Aquiess and Sciblue claimed they could move a river in the sky, they claim they had success, and they claim to have evidence from NOAA backing up these claims.
The Bottom LineAquiess has deleted its website in an effort to hide this technology and Houston, Texas is currently facing some of the most severe flooding in decades.
In addition, the Atmospheric River that used to run over California has almost disappeared… in fact it seems to be blocked when you look at the latest NOAA animations.
Back in February of this year, the Atmospheric River returned to California briefly, and mayhem ensued!
At the end of the video, the gentleman basically says that mother nature does a great job of cloud seeding on its own, and cloud seeding is largely ineffective. Then someone asks,
“Have you scheduled an AR (Atmospheric River) for this time period?” to which the gentleman replied “The AGU does that for us, we put in a request.”
Har har har.
Now Texas is getting its turn with the Atmospheric River whiplash.
- Apr. 13, 2012 - Freak Storm Drops 4 Feet Of Hail In Texas - Video - ‘This is the road to hail’: Did Texas storms really leave behind four feet high hailstone boulders? * Only three days before the alleged start of the Aquiess/Sciblue project, coincidence I’m sure.
- July 12, 2012 - Slow-Moving Storms Cause Serious Flood in Texas - “A stationary front draped across Texas is the focal point of the drenching storms, which could keep erupting over central and eastern portions of Texas through the end of the week. Plenty of humid air will continue to surge in from the Gulf of Mexico to provide fuel for hefty rain amounts.”
- April 27-28, 2013 - Flash Floods in Texas, 2013
- March 22, 2013 - Freak Hail Storm Batters Texas Town
- May 25-26, 2013 - Three people swept away, killed in severe San Antonio flooding - Two years ago San Antonio saw one of its worst floods in history
- October 2013 - NOAA Report - “This past Halloween, following several years of extensive drought, central Texans experienced incredible overnight flash floods. Rainfall totals and flooding were at historic levels. October 2013 was the wettest October in central Texas history.” - The recent flood had a flow rate of 120,000 cubic feet per second – nearly twice the force of Niagara Falls, she said. “It was flattening trees. It was moving boulders. It was pushing cars around like they were pieces of paper,” Morgan said. “It was a huge volume of water. There was no standing up to this flood.” “I’m still in shock,” said Carmen Perez, Tirso Perez’s daughter, who lost a home on the same street as her father. “It all happened within 15 minutes. It was that fast.”
- April 3, 2014 - Insane Pictures of Softball Size Hail in Denton, Texas
- May 12, 2014 - Heavy rains flood streets, creeks and cancel flights in North Texas - “While power outages have crossed the 20,000 mark in Dallas, it looks like the city dodged the high rainfall totals that swamped western counties.”
- June 22-25, 2014 - Storms Bring Flash Floods Across Texas
- September 22, 2014 - El Paso, Texas Flash Flooding Kills One; Cars Washed Away, Water Rescues - Floods swamp parts of Texas, New Mexico - “The soggy September hasn’t extended into eastern Texas, however; While west Texas has been drenched with flooding rain this month, Dallas has only had 0.06 inch of rain, the weather service reports.” * That’s where all the weather modification projects are, duh!
- April 27, 2015 - Huge tornado in Texas and hail the size of softballs
- May 9, 2015 - Tornado Touches Down in Texas — After Flash Flooding, Hail and an Earthquake (UPDATE: One Dead, One Critically Injured After Tornadoes)
- May 24, 2015 - Hundreds of homes washed away by deadly Texas flooding - So far this year, Oklahoma City has recorded 27.37 inches of rain. Last year at this time, only 4.29 inches had been recorded.
I think we may know the answer.
One could believe this is all random until you consider the claims of Aquiess and Sciblue.
Now that the cat is out of the bag regarding the manipulation of Atmospheric Rivers, my hope is that more people will monitor these rivers and the people messing with them.
If you are in the Texas or Oklahoma area and your life has been ripped apart by these floods, demand answers from the Texas Weather Modification board!
For more information about TDLR’s Weather Modification program, e-mail TDLR at email@example.com or contact us at:
Texas Department of Licensing and Regulation Weather Modification PO Box 12157 Austin, TX 78711
(800) 803-9202 in state only 463-6599 Fax: (512) 463-9468 Relay Texas-TDD: (800) 735-2989
- http://www.nytimes.com/2006/07/02/magazine/02wwln_essay.html?pagewanted=all - The Modern Rain Dance, by Jeff Hull. July 2, 2006
- http://www.latimes.com/local/california/la-me-rainmaker-20150526-story.html - With San Diego again drought-ridden, 1915 ‘Rainmaker’ saga is revisited, by Tony Perry, May 25, 2015
- http://househistoryman.blogspot.com/2012/02/bizaare-last-will-of-rainmaker-george.html - by Paul Williams, February 10, 2012
- http://blog.timesunion.com/rittner/serendipity-and-a-man-named-vince/1000/ - Serendipity And A Man Named Vince, By Don Rittner. July 24, 2010
- http://langmuir.nmt.edu/Storms_Above/StormsAboveCh3.html - Tampering With The Weather, Langmuir Laboratory for Atmospheric Research, New Mexico Tech, 2012
- http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/266563.pdf - Research in Electrical. Phenomena Associated with Aerosols, by Bernard Vonnegut, Arnold Doyle, and D. Read Moffett. 1961
- http://www.nawcinc.com/photopages/SeedingEffects.htm - “Effects of seeding Altostratus Clouds over Green Bay, Labrador: 45 minutes after seeding with dry ice”. Photo and boxed caption obtained from Sewell, W.R.D., et. al., 1973: Modifying the Weather; Western Geographical Series, Vol. 9, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada).
- http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/pdf/10.1175/1520-0469(1966)023%3C0197%3AUAAINF%3E2.0.CO%3B2 - Urea as an Ice Nucleant for Supercooled Clouds, by Robert G Knollenberg, University of Chicago. 1965
- http://www.universetoday.com/15189/when-cloud-seeding-goes-wrong-cement-chunk-falls-from-the-sky/ - When Cloud Seeding Goes Wrong: Cement Chunk Falls From the Sky, by Ian O’Neill on June 19, 2008
- http://www.archive.org/stream/waterseekers00naderich/waterseekers00naderich_djvu.txt - “The Water Seekers”. by Remi A. Nadeau (1950). Fourth edition: Crest Publishers, 1997. ISBN 978-0-9627104-5-2
- http://projecteuclid.org/euclid.bsmsp/1200513997 - Randomized cloud seeding in the United States. by Court, Arnold. Proceedings of the Fifth Berkeley Symposium on Mathematical Statistics and Probability, Volume 5: Weather Modification, 237–251, University of California Press, Berkeley, Calif., 1967.
- http://www.wrri.nmsu.edu/publish/watcon/proc17/Kahan.pdf - Project Skywater A Progress Report, by Archie M. Kahan, Chief, Division of Atmospheric Water Resources Management, Engineering and Research Center, Buraeu of Reclamation, U.S. Department of the Interior
- http://web.archive.org/web/20120910101837/http://www.sunshine-project.org/enmod/US_Congr.html - The Limits of Inside Pressure: The US Congress Role in ENMOD, by The Sunshine Project. Retreived 2012.
- http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/STATUTE-85/pdf/STATUTE-85-Pg735.pdf - http://web.archive.org/web/20130118170030/http://uscode.house.gov/download/pls/15C9A.txt - Public Law 92-205, Sec. 1, Dec. 18, 1971, 85 Stat. 735
- http://cfr.regstoday.com/15cfr908.aspx - 15 CFR 908 — “Maintaining Records and Submitting Reports on Weather Modification Activities”
- http://web.archive.org/web/20121119043808/http://www.corporateservices.noaa.gov/~noaaforms/eforms/nf17-4.pdf - NOAA Form 17-4 “Initial Report on Weather Modification Activities” Expired 2008
- http://web.archive.org/web/20130218182517/http://www.corporateservices.noaa.gov/~noaaforms/eforms/nf17-4a.pdf - NOAA Form 17-4a “Interim Activity Reports and Final Report” Expired 2007
- http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/STATUTE-90/pdf/STATUTE-90-Pg2359.pdf Public Law 94-490 94th Congress “AN ACT To authorize and direct tlie Secretary of Commerce to develop a national policy on weather modification, and for other purposes” 1976
- https://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/15/chapter-9A - 15 U.S. Code Chapter 9A - “Weather Modification Activities or Attempts; Reporting Requirement”
- http://www.un-documents.net/enmod.htm - https://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=XXVI-1&chapter=26&lang=en - Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques 1978
- https://archive.org/details/weatificat00unit - “Weather Modification: Programs, Problems, Policy, and Potential” Prepared at the Request of Hon. Howard W. Cannon, Chairman, Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, United States Senate. May 1978
- https://content.lib.washington.edu/cgi-bin/showfile.exe?CISOROOT=/ww-text&CISOPTR=13498&filename=14084.pdf - Summary of Weather Modification Activities Reported in 1979, U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Office of Research and Development