More chaff? Evansville-area radar blips had an answer. These don’t | Webb
Back on Dec. 10, the Evansville area was embroiled in intrigue when mysterious radar blips appeared over Southern Illinois and Western Kentucky. The long lines baffled the National Weather Service because they looked like storms – but it wasn’t raining.
The War Zone eventually confirmed the anomalies arose when a C-130 traveling to West Virginia from a military exercise out west released over our area huge plumes of military chaff – radar-jamming material mostly composed of aluminum.
Sounds reasonable. But it does nothing to explain what happened in Maine and Florida around the same time.
Similar blips materialized on radar over Portland, Maine, on Dec. 12. The National Weather Service there also guessed chaff was to blame.
Radar mystery may have been solved (again) | Webb
A West Virginia Air Guard C-130H Was Responsible For Massive Chaff Cloud Over Midwest
Now Massive Plumes Of Chaff Are Lighting Up Radar Over Maine and Florida Too
AIR FORCE STUDY LINKS BREATHING ALUMINUM NANOPARTICLES AND LUNG CANCER
Wagner, Andrew, et al. In vitro toxicity of aluminum nanoparticles in rat alveolar macrophages. No. AFRL-HE-WP-TP-2006-0022. AIR FORCE RESEARCH LAB WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH HUMAN EFFECTIVENESS DIRECTORATE, 2001.
PERFORMING ELECTRONIC COUNTERMEASURES IN THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA - 6 December 1978
This regulation gives frequency band letter designations for use in electronic warfare (EW). It gives frequency band authorizations, geographical restrictions, alerting requirements, and operational procedures governing active electronic countermeasures (ECM) in the United States and Canada. It sets up procedures for clearing frequencies for airborne, ground and shipboard operations not specifically authorized for ECM.
3. Explanation of Terms. Terms used in this regulation are explained as follows:
a. Surface ECM. All types of electronic jamming, deception, or chaff dispensing done by ground-based or shipboard equipment.
b. In-flight ECM: All types of electronic jamming, deception, or chaff dispensing done by aircraft or other vehicles in flight.
c. Small Scale ECM Mission. In-flight ECM done by a single aircraft or by two to six aircraft working as a unit.
d. Large Scale ECM Mission. In-flight ECM done by seven or more aircraft working as a unit.
e. Chaff. Strips of frequency-cut metal foil, wire, or metalized glass fiber used to reflect echoes for confusion purposes. It is usually dropped from aircraft or expelled from shells or rockets as a radar countermeasure.
f. Rope. An element of chaff consisting of a long roll of metallic foil or wire designed for broad, low-frequency response.
g. Rope Chaff. Chaff that contains one or more rope elements.
h. Big Photo. An unclassified general call sign for aircraft performing in-flight ECM. (Big Photo is used by civilian contractors during in-flight ECM when operating under provisions of paragraph 2c).
i. Ground Photo. An unclassified general call sign for ground radar stations intentionally engaged in in-flight ECM.
j. Buzzer. An unclassified brevity code word. It stands for electronic jamming or deception by ECM.
k. Stream. An unclassified brevity code word. It stands for chaff drops at short intervals. These appear on a radar scope as a continuous line of interference.
l. Burst. An unclassified brevity code word. It stands for chaff drops at sufficiently long enough intervals so they appear on a radar scope as individual target returns. (For purposes of this regulation, Burst is further explained as single chaff drops of not more than 3 seconds spaced not less than 90 seconds apart, with no more than four bursts in a 40 nautical mile (NM) radius of other chaff drops.)
The Manhattan-Rochester Coalition, research on the health effects of radioactive materials, and tests on vulnerable populations without consent in St. Louis, 1945-1970
This piece analyzes a covert Manhattan Project spin-off organization referred to here as the Manhattan-Rochester Coalition, and an obscure aerosol study in St. Louis, Missouri, conducted under contract by the U.S. military from 1953–1954, and 1963–1965. The military-sponsored studies targeted a segregated, high-density urban area, where low-income persons of color predominantly resided. Examination of the Manhattan-Rochester Coalition and the St. Louis aerosol studies, reveal their connections to each other, and to a much larger military project that secretly tested humans, both alive and deceased, in an effort to understand the effects of weaponized radiation. Through this case study, the author explores how a large number of participants inside an organization will willingly participate in organizational acts that are harmful to others, and how large numbers of outsiders, who may or may not be victims of organizational activities, are unable to determine illegal or harmful activity by an organization. The author explains how ethical and observational lapses are engineered by the organization through several specific mechanisms, in an effort to disable critical analysis, and prevent both internal and external dissent of harmful organizational actions. Through studying the process of complex organizational deviance, we can develop public policies that protect the public’s right to know, and construct checks and methods to minimize the chance of covert projects that are contrary to societal norms. Link
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